Bergey’s Manual Of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition

Bergey’s Manual Of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition


Bergey’s Manual Of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition

It should be emphasized that the Manual is a compendium of new data, a review of the literature from 1975 to the present, and above all, a challenge to the reader to contribute by reporting new data.

Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology
Nine Edition (rpt. v.9)

By The Editors


Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) has become a cornerstone of modern clinical microbiology. In most cases in which a specific antimicrobial drug activity is desired, culturing the organism is not sufficient. Some time-consuming and expensive procedures, including purification of microorganisms from each specimen, are necessary before AST results are obtained. The dilution broth technique, which needs only a small amount of sample and the absence of intrinsic antimicrobial agents in commercially available broths, has been the standard for most laboratories. Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods have been used, and both are accepted as appropriate methods. Antimicrobial concentrations and incubation times must be determined empirically.

Once AST results are available, if there is significant (greater than one doubling dilution change) difference between reported AST results and clinical experience, the practitioner must consider the possibility that a different antibiotic than the one tested was used to treat that particular patient.

One difficulty in performing AST is isolating the specific organism from the specimen that is to be tested. Broth cultures usually are used for isolating and differentiating microorganisms from mixed cultures. A sample of the inoculum is added to enriched broth to grow the presumptive causative agent and to suppress the growth of other microorganisms and mixed bacteria. Bacteriological selective media may be used to permit the growth of the specific agent.

At this time, there is not a readily available test that can specifically distinguish one organism from another with a high degree of certainty. In most cases, the definitive identification is completed by culture and microscopic examination. However, some presumptive tests are available to help the laboratory worker quickly identify the majority of the organisms. If the enzyme pattern is known and if the biochemical properties of the organism are available, the organism can be identified more quickly. If the enzyme patterns of two organisms are known but the biochemical reactions that occur are not listed, a statistical comparison of the reactions can be made to differentiate between the organisms.

If more than one strain is


PREFACE The ninth edition of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology is a departure from past editions that attempted, usually inadequately, to accurately and thoroughly present the bacteriology and pathobiology of the over 700 bacterial species recognized at the time of writing. The manual describes the general characteristics of some 78 genera and over 1,000 species including those first described. To illustrate the key features of the manual, Chapters 8 to 16 are devoted to the principal groups of bacteria and to the most important pathogens of man and animals. The rest of the manual is similarly organized and will be found generally consistent in its organization. The Manual is published by The New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University.


The entire system of plant reproduction and metabolism involves a cycle of nucleic acid synthesis in the male and female gametes. At the heart of this cycle is a vast biosynthetic process, the nucleic acid synthesis, which serves as the foundation of all the molecular activity of the cell. Whether one looks at the gigantic synthesis of RNA, the synthesis of nucleoprotein or the synthesis of one of the many kinds of DNA, the synthesis of the four nucleic acid bases is the same. In addition, it is the same in all species, whatever their taxonomic origin. Nuclear division, which takes place during the preparation of the germ cells, and that endures throughout the life of the cell, is just one of the activities of the cell which require the participation of nucleic acids. The nucleic acids also have a role in regulation of the synthesis of proteins and metabolites. In this chapter, we will examine the nucleic acid synthesis. (For a more detailed analysis of the general processes of nucleic acid synthesis and regulation, see Chapter 4, pages 68 to 80.)

A “nucleic acid” is a large molecule containing nitrogen and carbon and, usually, a considerable amount of hydrogen, formed from pyrimidine bases (thymine, cytosine, and uracil) or purine bases (adenine and guanine). Four bases can associate in various nucleotides, in “adenylate,” “guanylate,” and “thymidylate.” It is these combinations which are the

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